Objective To explore the relationship between Beclin-1 and the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Methods ① Twenty-five PDAC specimens and 20 matched adjacent normal pancreatic tissues were obtained after radical surgery between April 2009 and November 2009 in West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Beclin-1 mRNA and protein expressions were examined by using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Correlations between expressions of Beclin-1 protein with clinical data of PDAC patients were evaluated. ② PDAC cells were divided into 2 groups, cells of transfection group were transfected with PLenO-WPI-Beclin-1 vector, and cells of non-transfection group didn’t transfected with PLenO-WPI-Beclin-1 vector. Expressions levels of Beclin-1 mRNA in the 2 groups were detected by real-time PCR at 24 hours and 48 hours after transfection. ③ PDAC cells were divided into 3 groups, cells of transfection group were transfected with PLenO-WPI-Beclin-1 vector, cells of empty vector group transfected with PLenO-WPI, cells of blank control group didn’t accepted any vector. OD value was detected by MTT once a day during 1–7 days after transfection. Results ① Expression levels of Beclin-1 mRNA and its protein were significantly lower in PDAC tissue than those of adjacent normal pancreatic tissues (P<0.05). Increased Beclin-1 expression was associated with early TNM stage of Ⅰ and Ⅱ(P<0.05) and negative distant metastasis (P=0.011). ② At the same time point of 24 hours and 48 hours after transfection, the expression levels of Beclin-1 mRNA were higher in transfection group than those of non-transfection group (P<0.05). ③ MTT assay showed that PANC-1 cell proliferation ability was lower in the transfection group compared to the blank control group and empty vector groups in vitro on day 4–7 after transfection (P<0.05), but there was no significant in the cell proliferation ability among the 3 groups on day 1, 2, and 3 (P>0.05). Conclusions Down regulation of Beclin-1 and autophagy inhibition play an important role in the tumorigenesis and development of PDAC. Activating autophagy via overexpression of Beclin-1 may be a potential treatment for some PDACs and warrants further investigation.
ObjectiveTo study the clinical manifestations, pathologic characteristics, imaging features, diagnosis and treatment of adenomas of extrahepatic bile duct.MethodsTwo cases of adenomas of extrahepatic bile duct in our hospital and 14 cases reported in the literatures were analyzed retrospectively.ResultsThe patients’(male 5, female 11) mean age was 58.4 years (range 21-85). The main manifestations included jaundice (n=11), abdominal pain (n=8),fever (n=6),dyspepsia (n=4),body weight loss (n=3) and claycolored stool (n=1). The locations of tumors were in the left hepatic duct (n=1), right hepatic duct (n=3), hepatic common bile duct(n=3）,the junction of cystic duct and common bile duct (n=1），distal common bile duct (n=8). The pathologic types were tubular adenomas (n=5), papillary (villous) adenomas (n=10),and mucous adenoma (n=1). All the patients underwent surgical therapy. The tumors were identified by postoperative histopathologic examination.ConclusionIt is difficult to correctly diagnose adenomas of extrahepatic bile duct before operation, because the clinical manifestations are usually atypical. The definite diagnosis should depend on histopathologic examination. It is the key to completely resect the tumors. Postoperative followup should be done on regular basis.
Objective To introduce the role of pancreatic stellate cells in pancreatic fibrosis and the progress in treatment of pancreatic fibrosis. MethodsRelevant literatures were collected and reviewed. Results Pancreatic stellate cells activation was closely related to pancreatic fibrosis. Inhibition of pancreatic stellate cells activation could provide a new approach in clinical treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Conclusion Pancreatic stellate cells are the key to pancreatic fibrosis, which are becoming the target for antifibrosis of the pancreas and treatment of chronic pancreatitis.
ObjectiveIn order to provide a data base for fund project applicants and funding priorities, we would summarize the basic situation and key points of basic research in liver transplantation by analyzing the projects funded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in the field of liver transplantation.MethodsThrough the big data knowledge management and service platform of NSFC, internet-based science information system, and shared service network of NSFC, we searched the funding project information in the liver transplantation relevant field from 2010 to 2019, then analyzed the effectiveness of the Young Scientists Fund of NSFC in promoting young researchers and the research focus and development direction of funding projects.ResultsIn the latest 10 years, NSFC persistently and stably funded the basic research in the field of liver transplantation, with the total number of funding projects was 387, and the funding budget was 198.215 million yuan. The main types of funding projects were the General Program and the Youth Science Fund. There were 210 General Program project (54.3%) with an amount of 113.14 million yuan (57.1%), 127 Young Scientists Fund (32.8%) with an amount of 27.9 million yuan (14.1%), and 22 Fund for Less Developed Regions (5.7%) with an amount of 9.03 million yuan (4.6%). Sun Yat-sen University and Zhejiang University were far ahead of other supporting institutions in both the total number of projects undertaken and the amount of funds granted. The youth/surface ratio reached as high as 72.2% (13/18). The conversion rate of Young Scientists Fund to higher-level projects reached about 50%, which was significantly higher than the overall level of 24.7% (21/85) in the field of liver transplantation. The funding projects were mainly distributed in application code H0318 (liver regeneration, liver protection, liver failure, and artificial liver, 58, 15.0%), H0321 (organ transplantation of digestive system, 169, 43.7%), and H1006 (organ transplantation and transplantation immunity, 50, 12.9%). The main research fields were transplantation immunity and liver injury and liver protection. At the same time, projects such as graft function and complications of liver transplantation were also funded. There were few studies on the immune status of long-term survival in patients after liver transplantation and the mechanism on prevention of immunosuppressant-related diseases.ConclusionsThe NSFC has a great leading effect on the discipline development and talent cultivation of liver transplantation. However, there are still some problems in the discipline layout, such as the lack of attention to the mechanism of long-term graft function and chronic immune rejection.
ObjectiveTo evaluate the effect of pathological portal vein (PV)/superior mesenteric vein (SMV) invasion during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma and the clinical significance of PD with PV/SMV resection in patients without pathological evidence of venous invasion.MethodsFrom January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2017, data of 183 patients who had PD for pancreatic adenocarcinoma were collected. Eighty-one patients had PD with PV/SMV resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, among them, 42 cases (51.9%) had pathological PV/SMV invasion (PD+P/S+ group) and 39 patients (48.1%) didn’t have pathological PV/SMV invasion (PD+P/S− group). One hundred and two patients had a standard PD without PV/SMV resection (control group). Multivariate analysis was used to identify predictive variables which influencing survival and the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate patients’ survival.ResultsThere were no differences in gender, age, preoperative serum CA19-9 level, blood loss, tumor size, tumor TNM stage, positive lymph nodes, ratio of positive lymph nodes, degree of tumor differentiation, perineural invasion, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, type of operation, and margin status among 3 groups (P>0.05). And moreover, no significant differences were found between the PD combined PV/SMV resection group and the control group in the incidence of complications and mortality (P>0.05) and all no reoperation happened. Univariate analysis revealed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) among the PD+P/S+ group, PD+P/S– group and control group (P<0.001), median survival time were 10, 19 and 20 months, respectivly. Moreover, depth of PV/SMV invasion, use of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and tumor differentiation were independent prognostic factors by multivariate survival analysis.ConclusionsOS of patients with PV/SMV invasion is significantly worse than that of patients without PV/SMV invasion, no matter underwent PV/SMV resection or not. The cause of that maybe invade to the tunica intima by tumor limits OS of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. OS of PV/SMV-resected patients without pathological PV/SMV invasion is similar to that of patients who had standard PD without PV/SMV resection. Whether the patients can benefit from routine resection of PV/SMV is still controversial.
ObjectiveTo establish a mouse model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis.MethodsThirty-six male ICR mice were randomly divided into control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=30). Each of the animals in the experimental group received 7 intraperitoneal injections of caerulein (50 μg/kg body weight) in 0.9% NaCl at hourly intervals over 6 hours. The animals in the experimental group were killed at 9,18,24,48 and 72 hours respectively after the first caerulein injection. The control animals received the same volume of 0.9% NaCl without caerulein. The animals in the control group were killed at the 18th hour after the first intraperitoneal injection. The severity of acute necrotizing pancreatitis was evaluated in terms of amylase level, pancreatic weight/body weight and the histological changes. Variance analysis was employed in the processing of these data. ResultsBoth amylase level and pancreatic weight elevated 9 hours after the first caerulein injection, and correlated with the course of pancreatitis. The maximums of both alterations were observed at the same time point (18 hours after the first injection of caerulein). Prominent interstitial inflammation and acinar cell necrosis occurred at the 18th hour, and the histological score for pancreatitis reached a maximum （P＜0.05）. Conclusion Intraperitoneal injection of a large dosage of caerulein can induce acute necrotizing pancreatitis in ICR mice. This method is simple and noninvasive, and the model established thus is stable and reproducible.
Objective To explore the risk factors of postoperative anxiety in patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing total pancreatectomy. Methods A total of 31 patients who underwent total pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer between July 2011 and December 2016 were collected and analyzed in this retrospective study. The patients’ postoperative Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores were collected, and the exposure factors were analyzed to identify the risk factors of postoperative anxiety through univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis by SPSS 21.0 statistical software. Results In the 31 patients, there were 17 males and 14 females, with an average age of (66.16±9.09) years, an average body mass index of (21.11±3.10) kg/m2, and an average postoperative hospital stay of (14.58±7.47) days. There were 23 patients (74.2%) with postoperative anxiety, and 30 patients (96.8%) with hyperglycosemia required insulin therapy. The total perioperative mortality was 3.2%. In the univariate analysis, age (P=0.012), smoking history (P=0.043), preoperative diabetes mellitus (P=0.012), postoperative bile leakage (P=0.043), and postoperative abdominal infection (P=0.026) were related factors of the postoperative anxiety. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, patients without preoperative diabetes was an independent risk factor of postoperative anxiety (P=0.013). Conclusions For patients undergoing total pancreatectomy, it is needed to pay attention to the patients’ postoperative psychological conditions and assess the postoperative anxiety, especially for those without preoperative diabetes. To improve the life quality and long-term survival of these patients, health education and psychological intervention are needed.
ObjectiveTo study the expressions of Ras trapping to Golgi (RasTG) genes in pancreatic carcinoma tissues and to observe the growth, proliferation and the impact of tumors formation of human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1), and to explore its mechanism. MethodsMade PANC1 as a target to research, transfected RasTG genes into PANC-1, used RNAi technology and observed the growth, proliferation and the impact of tumors formation of the cells. Meantime, contrasted the RasTG expressions between pancreatic ductal cancer and adjacent tissue by tissue microarray technology. Results①The expression of RasTG gene in tissues was not very differential， which was higher in the brain, liver, and adrenal gland. ②The expression of RasTG protein in pancreatic ductal carcinoma was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues （Plt;0.05）. ③After RasTG RNAi in PANC-1 cells, the ability of growth and proliferation were decreased. ④The ability of tumors formation in PANC-1 cells after RNAi was decreased, carcinoma’s volume of transfected group was significantly smaller than that in the nontransfected group (Plt;0.05). ConclusionsRasTG gene is widely distributed in animals. RasTG protein in pancreatic carcinoma tissues is higher than that in adjacent tissues. The ability of proliferation, transformation and tumors formation in PANC-1 cells after RNAi of RasTG gene are restrained, RasTG gene is a positive regulatory factor.
ObjectiveTo explore clinical efficacy of Frey procedures for chronic pancreatitis. MethodsThirty two patients with chronic pancreatitis who underwent Frey procedures in our hospital from June 2000 to October 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. The rate of perioperative complications, pain relief, and especially endocrine and exocrine function of pancreas in longterm followup (mean 43 months) were analyzed. ResultsNo death occurred in all patients. Fat liquefaction of wound was found in two patients and pancreatic fistula was found in one patient, who was cured by conventional treatment. So the rate of perioperative complications was 9.4%(3/32). After Frey procedures, pain disappeared completely in sixteen patients (50.0%), pain relieved in fourteen patients (43.8%) and two cases were ineffective. Therefore, the rate of pain relief in longterm follow-up was 93.8%. The hospitalization was (11±2) d. After surgical treatment the illness of five patients with diabetes mellitus did not aggravate while new onset of diabetes mellitus was observed in three cases. For three cases who suffered from indigestion and steatorrhea, symptomatic relief was found in one patient treated by oral administration of pancreatin and inefficacy was observed in two cases. But four patients with new steatorrhea were found after operation. ConclusionUnder the strict surgical indications, Frey procedure is a safe and effective surgical method for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis.
ObjectiveTo review the current clinical application of Beger procedure and Frey procedure for benign disease or low-grade malignant potential lesion of pancreas. MethodsRelevant literatures about current advance of clinical application of Beger procedure and Frey procedure published recently of domestic and abroad were collected and reviewed. ResultsWith the concept of organ-preserving operations was adopted in recent years, Beger procedure and Frey procedure were applied generally. Beger procedure and Frey procedure were associated with tolerable perioperative risk, postoperative complications, and good outcomes in the aspects of preservation of function and curability in these lesions compared to conventional pancreatectomy, with preservation of the physiological food passage, thus patients gained weight faster, had less pain, and demonstrated better exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function postoperatively and an improvement in the quality of life. Both procedures had reached an international position as a standard operation for the treatment of benign disease or low-grade malignant potential lesion of pancreas. But after long-term following-up early advantages were no longer present. ConclusionsBeger procedure and Frey procedure are safe and effective in providing good outcomes in the aspects of preservation of function and curability in benign disease or low-grade malignant potential lesion of pancreas. Organ-preserving pancreatectomy could become a new organ-preserving standard operation.