ObjectiveThis review aimed to summarize the current epidemiological status and risk factors of pancreatic cancer at home and abroad.MethodThe literatures on epidemiology and risk factors of pancreatic cancer in recent years were collected and summarized.ResultsCurrently the overall incidence of pancreatic cancer was lower in all malignant tumors, but the mortality rate was the opposite. Incidence varies from region to region, the incidence rate in economically developed areas was higher than that of underdeveloped areas. Although the disease had made some progress in the fields of surgery, chemotherapy, an so on, the long-term survival of patients with pancreatic cancer was still not ideal. The onset of pancreatic cancer was associated with smoking, alcohol, obesity, dietary imbalance, age, gender, blood type, ethnicity, family history and genetic history, chronic pancreatitis, infection, and intestinal flora imbalance.ConclusionsPancreatic cancer is a high malignancy with a poor prognosis. It is influenced by a variety of risk factors. Therefore, it is especially necessary to pay attention to the primary prevention of pancreatic cancer and screen high-risk individuals regularly, to diagnose pancreatic cancer at an early stage.
ObjectiveTo investigate the occurrence and treatment of postoperative complications after laparoscopic laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPPPD) or pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD). MethodThe clinical data of 130 patients undergoing LPD from October 2010 to December 2015 in West China Hospital of Sichuan University were analyzed retrospectively. ResultsOf 130 patients, postoperative complications occurred in 55 cases, including 24 cases of pancreatic fistula, 14 cases of gastric emptying disorder, 3 cases of anastomotic bleeding, 6 cases of peritoneal infection, 1 case of bile leakage, 1 case of venous thrombosis, 1 case of chylous leakage, 5 cases of peritoneal effusion, without the occurrence of stress ulcer and incision complications. There were significant difference in the incidence of pancreatic fistula (P=0.025), gastric emptying disorder (P=0.034), anastomotic bleeding (P=0.020), and peritoneal infection (P=0.016) among prophase group, metaphase group, and the later stage group. ConclusionsThe most common complication after LPD is pancreatic fistula. With the improvement of surgical techniques and procedures, incidences of some postoperative complications decreases gradually.
ObjectiveTo study the predictability of dynamic prediction model of clinical pancreatic fistula in patients with or without pancreatic duct stent in laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD).MethodsA total of 66 patients who underwent LPD in West China Hospital of Sichuan University from November 2019 to October 2020 were enrolled in the randomized controlled trial (registration number: ChiCTR1900026653). The perioperative data of the patients were collected in real time. The patients were divided into groups according to whether the pancreatic duct support tube was retained during the operation, and the probability prediction value was output according to the model formula. The specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, discrimination, and stability of the prediction results were analyzed.ResultsFor the group with pancreatic stent tubes, the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of the model at the model cut-off points on the postoperative day 2, 3 and 5 were 92.0%, 76.7% and 57.1%, 50.0%, 100% and 66.7%, and 88.8%, 78.8% and 61.3%, respectively. The areas under the ROC curve were 0.870, 0.956 and 0.702, respectively. The kappa values of the prediction result based on model cut-off point and cut-off point of ROC curve were 0.308, 0.582 and 0.744, respectively. Whereas for those who without the stent tube, the specificity, sensitivity, and prediction accuracy of the model on the postoperative day 5 were 66.7%, 100% and 72%, respectively. The area under curve at different time points were 0.304, 0.821, and 0.958, respectively. The kappa values at the last two time points were 0.465 and 0.449, respectively.ConclusionsFor patients with pancreatic duct support during LPD operation, the dynamic model of clinical pancreatic fistula can more accurately screen high-risk groups of clinical pancreatic fistula, and has better stability of prediction results. For patients without supporting tube, in the case of flexible adjustment of the boundary point, the model can also be more accurate screening on the 3rd and 5th days after operation.
Objective To formulate an evidence-based treatment plan for a patient with suspected pyogenic liver abscess. Methods Based on the clinical questions raised by a patient with suspected pyogenic liver abscess, we searched The Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2007), MEDLINE (1996 to January 2008), ACP Journal Club (1991 to January 2008), and Chinese Journal Full-text Database (1994 to January 2008) for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and case-control studies. The quality of the included studies was assessed. Results We did not find any systematic reviews or large-scale RCTs involving a comparison between laparoscopic drainage and surgical drainage in the treatment of pyogenic liver abscess. Four clinical retrospective studies closely related to our questions were found and assessed. These studies concluded that laparoscopic drainage for liver abscesses was a safe alternative for patients requiring surgical drainage. Based on the current evidence, as well as our clinical expertise and the patient’s values, laparoscopic drainage was not used for this patient and surgical drainage was applied. The patient was recovered and discharged. Conclusion Current evidence showed that laparoscopic drainage might be effective and safe for liver abscesses but high-quality large-scale randomized controlled trials are still required.
Objective To analyse the correlation between cervical sagittal parameters of cervical spondylotic myelopathy in different sagittal curvature so as to find out representative cervical sagittal alignment parameters by measuring on MRI. Methods A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 88 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy between July 2015 and January 2016. The C2-C7 Cobb angle, T1 slope (T1S), and C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (C2-C7 SVA) were measured on T2-weight MRI. According to C2-C7 Cobb angle, the patients were divided into lordosis group (≥10° Cobb angle, 48 cases) and straightened group (0-10° Cobb angle, 40 cases). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for the reliability of measured data, Pearson correlation analysis for correlation between cervical sagittal parameters. Results ICC was 0.858-0.946, indicating good consistency of measurement parameters. The C2-C7 Cobb angle, T1S, and C2-C7 SVA were (5.6±2.4)°, (22.2±6.7)°, and (10.2±5.4) mm in straightened group, and were (20.1±8.2)°, (23.4±8.9)°, and (8.2±4.6) mm in lordosis group respectively. There was no correlation between the 3 parameters in straighten group (r=0.100,P=0.510 for T1S and C2-C7 Cobb angle;r=–0.100,P=0.500 for T1S and C2-C7 SVA;r=0.080,P=0.610 for C2-C7 Cobb angle and C2-C7 SVA). There was positive correlation between T1S and C2-C7 Cobb angle (r=0.540,P=0.000), negative correlation between T1S and C2-C7 SVA (r=–0.450,P=0.001), and no correlation between C2-C7 Cobb angle and C2-C7 SVA (r=–0.003,P=0.980). Conclusion For cervical spondylotic myelopathy in patients with cervical lordosis, only T1S measurement on MRI can be used as the main parameter to judge the sagittal curvature, but in patients with straightened cervical Cobb angle, measurements of T1S, C2-C7 Cobb angle, and C2-C7 SVA should be taken for the comprehensive evaluation of cervical sagittal curvature.
Objective To investigate whether preoperative T1 slope (T1S) in MRI can predict the changes of cervical curvature after expansive open-door laminoplasty (EOLP) in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, so as to make up for the shortcomings of difficult measurement in X-ray film. Methods The clinical data of 36 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy who underwent EOLP were retrospectively analysed. There were 21 males and 15 females with an average age of 55.8 years (range, 37-73 years) and an average follow-up time of 14.3 months (range, 12-24 months). The preoperative X-ray films at dynamic position, CT, and MRI of cervical spine before operation, and the anteroposterior and lateral X-ray films at last follow-up were taken out to measure the following sagittal parameters. The parameters included C2-C7 Cobb angle and C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (C2-C7 SVA) in all patients before operation and at last follow-up; preoperative T1S were measured in MRI, and the patients were divided into larger T1S group (T1S>19°, group A) and small T1S group (T1S≤19°, group B) according to the median of T1S, and the preoperative T1S, C2-C7 Cobb angle, C2-C7 SVA, and the C2-C7 Cobb angle and C2-C7 SVA at last follow-up, difference in axial distance (the difference of C2-C7 SVA before and after operation), postoperative curvature loss (the difference of C2-C7 Cobb angle before and after operation), the number of patients whose curvature loss was more than 5° after operation, and the number of patients whose kyphosis changed (C2-C7 Cobb angle was less than 0° after operation). Results The C2-C7 Cobb angle at last follow-up was significantly decreased when compared with preoperative value (t=8.000, P=0.000), but there was no significant difference in C2-C7 SVA between pre- and post-operation (t=–1.842, P=0.074). The preoperative T1S was (19.69±3.39)°; there were 17 cases in group A and 19 cases in group B with no significant difference in gender and age between 2 groups (P>0.05). The preoperative C2-C7 Cobb angle in group B was significantly lower than that in group A (t=–2.150, P=0.039), while there was no significant difference in preoperative C2-C7 SVA between 2 groups (t=0.206, P=0.838). At last follow-up, except for the curvature loss after operation in group B was significantly lower than that in group A (t=–2.723, P=0.010), there was no significant difference in the other indicators between 2 groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Preoperative larger T1S (T1S>19°) in MRI had a larger preoperative lordosis angle, but more postoperative physiological curvature was lost; preoperative T1S in MRI can not predict postoperative curvature loss, but preoperative larger T1S may be more prone to kyphosis.
ObjectiveTo evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy through the ligament of Treitz approach for pancreatic body and tail cancer. MethodsOn 13th November 2017, we selected a patient with a suspicious malignant tumor in the body of pancreas but no evidence of metastasis or local invasion of the retroperitoneum for laparoscopic antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy through the ligament of Treitz approach. The time of operation, the estimated blood loss, and post-operative complications were observed. ResultsThe procedure was completed successfully in 255 min, and the estimated blood loss was 200 mL, there was no need of transfusion and no significant post-operational complications had been observed. No tumor recurrence or distal metastasis was found after a 12 month’s follow-up. ConclusionLaparoscopic radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy through the ligament of Treitz approach is a feasible and safe procedure for pancreatic body and tail malignant tumor in strictly selected patients.