ObjectiveTo summarize the latest research progress in active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma at home and abroad, and provide some reference for future clinical work. MethodRetrieved and reviewed relevant literatures about prospective studies on active surveillance of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.ResultsIn recent years, the incidence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma had increased sharply, but most of the biological activities were inert, tumor-specific mortality was very low, and only a few had progressed. For patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, surgery was a safe and effective treatment method, but due to changes in the epidemiological characteristics of the disease, people were reconsidering whether there was overtreatment in patients without high-risk characteristics. Expert consensus and guidelines no matter at home or abroad mentioned that active monitoring can be considered as an alternative to surgery. For suitable patients, active monitoring might be a better choice.ConclusionsActive surveillance for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma is basically considered to be a safe and feasible treatment option, but large numbers of clinical trials are still needed to provide evidence for the conversion of conventional clinical treatment models. In the future, by more accurately assessing the tumor progression of patients with low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, active surveillance is promising to alternate surgical treatments.
ObjectiveTo analyze the clinical efficacy of decitabine contained chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients.MethodsA total of 101 patients with relapsed or refractory AML from May 2014 to December 2017 were collected retrospectively. Three schemes with a relatively larger number of users were included: 15 cases were treated with decitabine monotherapy (DAC regime); 37 cases were treated with decitabine, anthracycline antibiotic, and cytarabine (D-DA regime); and 49 cases were treated with decitabine, cytarabine, aclarubicin, and granulocyte colony-stimulatingfactor (G-CSF) (D-CAG regimen). The remission rate, blood products support strength, degree and duration of bone marrow suppression, adverse reaction, and survival time were compared.ResultsThe complete remission (CR) rates of DAC, D-DA and D-CAG regimen group were 40.0%, 48.6%, and 71.4%, respectively; the overall respond rates (ORR) were 46.7%, 54.1%, and 79.6%, respectively. The ORR in D-CAG regimen group was higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.017). The dosage of G-CSF in D-CAG regimen group were lower than those in DAC regimen group [ (1 363.0±1 037.9) vs. (2 517.0±1 163.4) μg, P<0.05]; the mean number of erythrocyte transfusion and the dosage of G-CSF were lower than those in D-DA regimen group [(6.7±4.0) vs. (14.8±10.1) U, P<0.05; (1 363.0±1 037.9) vs. (2 786.0±1474.0) μg, P<0.05]; the time to the suppression of hemoglobin and platelet in D-CAG regimen group were later than those in D-DA regimen group [(11.5±2.6) vs. (8.8±2.5) days, P=0.007; (10.9±2.6) vs. (7.6±2.5) days, P=0.002]; the time to the suppression of platelet was later than that in DAC regimen group [(10.9±2.6) vs. (7.6±1.6) days, P=0.003]. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse reations among the three group (P>0.05). The median overall survival of D-CAG regimen group was longer than that in DAC regimen group (11.6 vs. 8.8 months, P=0.013).ConclusionAmong the three chemotherapy regimens containing decitabine, the CR and ORR of D-CAG regimen are higher, the tolerance is better, and further promotion can be attempted in qualified medical institutions.
ObjectiveTo systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of local anesthesia for venipuncture in children, and to provide evidence for related nursing practice.MethodsWeb of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, Chinese Biomedical Database and VIP databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the application of local anesthesia in venipuncture in children till June 25th, 2021. Two reviewers independently reviewed the literature, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included RCTs. RevMan 5.3 software was used for meta-analysis.ResultsA total of 19 RCTs were included, comprising 2 566 patients. All of them were high-quality English articles included in SCI or Medline. The results of meta-analysis showed that: the painless rate [odds ratio (OR)=3.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.88, 7.66), P=0.000 2] and satisfaction rate of venipuncture [OR=2.12, 95%CI (1.27, 3.54), P=0.004] in the local anesthesia group were higher than those in the non-anesthesia group, and the pain score [mean difference=−0.62, 95%CI (−0.77, −0.48), P<0.000 01] in the local anesthesia group was lower than that in the non-anesthesia group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the success rate of the first puncture [OR=1.14, 95%CI (0.77, 1.68), P=0.52], the incidence of transient skin reactions [OR=1.15, 95%CI (0.67, 1.95), P=0.62], the incidence of paleness [OR=1.11, 95%CI (0.57, 2.15), P=0.76], or the incidence of edema at the puncture site [OR=0.64, 95%CI (0.21, 1.96), P=0.44].ConclusionsLocal anesthesia can effectively reduce pain and improve the satisfaction of children with venipuncture, and has good clinical safety. It can be used by nursing staff in clinical practice.