ObjectiveTo summarize the latest research progress in active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma at home and abroad, and provide some reference for future clinical work. MethodRetrieved and reviewed relevant literatures about prospective studies on active surveillance of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.ResultsIn recent years, the incidence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma had increased sharply, but most of the biological activities were inert, tumor-specific mortality was very low, and only a few had progressed. For patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, surgery was a safe and effective treatment method, but due to changes in the epidemiological characteristics of the disease, people were reconsidering whether there was overtreatment in patients without high-risk characteristics. Expert consensus and guidelines no matter at home or abroad mentioned that active monitoring can be considered as an alternative to surgery. For suitable patients, active monitoring might be a better choice.ConclusionsActive surveillance for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma is basically considered to be a safe and feasible treatment option, but large numbers of clinical trials are still needed to provide evidence for the conversion of conventional clinical treatment models. In the future, by more accurately assessing the tumor progression of patients with low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, active surveillance is promising to alternate surgical treatments.
ObjectiveTo explore the value of active surveillance (AS) with ultrasound for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) tumor growth.MethodsA retrospective collection of 196 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy at West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2014 to December 2018 were pathologically diagnosed as PTMC, and no cervical lymph node metastasis was found on ultrasound, and AS was performed. According to the change of the maximum diameter of the nodule, the patients were divided into the maximum diameter increase group, the maximum diameter stable group and the maximum diameter reduction group. According to the nodule volume change, the patients were divided into the volume increase group, the volume stable group and the volume reduction group. The differences in the patients’ gender, age, with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, follow-up time, tumor size, boundary, shape, echo, aspect ratio, calcifications, multifocality, bilateral involvement, other nodule, surrounding tissues and cervical lymph nodes among the different groups were analyzed in order to clarify the related factors of tumor growth.ResultsOne hundred and ninety-six patients had ultrasound AS time ranging from 6 to 79 months with the median (quartile) time were 16.0 (10.0, 30.0) months. One hundred and seventeen patients (59.7%) were in AS for 6 to 63 months with the median (quartile) time were 13.0. (8.0, 22.0), surgical treatments were performed after termination of AS. Forty-five patients (23.0%) continued to perform AS, 34 patients (17.3%) did not continue to perform AS in West China Hospital of Sichuan University. There was no significant reduction in the maximum diameter and volume of the nodules in all cases. Among them, 9 cases (4.6%) had an increase in the maximum diameter of the nodules, and 187 cases (95.4%) had a stable maximum diameter. Forty cases (20.4%) had an increase in the volume of the nodules, and 156 cases (79.6%) had a stable volume of the nodules. Comparison of the maximum diameter change of nodules between the two groups, there was a significant difference in the age of patients (P<0.05). Comparison of the maximum volume change between the two groups, there were significant differences in age, follow-up time and initial nodule volume (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that younger age was an independent risk factor for PTMC nodule growth [OR＝0.638, 95%CI (0.601, 0.675), P＝0.015].ConclusionsYounger age is a risk factor for PTMC tumor growth. We should adopt a more active monitoring program for younger patients. The increase of PTMC tumor volume can be more easily monitored than the increase of its maximum diameter, so it can be used as an indicator to predict nodule growth at an earlier stage in AS.