ObjectiveTo systematically review the efficiency and safety of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with aortic stenosis at intermediate-low risk compared with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR).MethodsTwo researchers searched literatures independently in databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, China Biology Medicine disc, China National Knowledge Internet, VIP database for studies published from January 2012 to October 2017, then screened for propriate studies, collected information from different follow-up period all on the principle of Cocharan handbook. At last statistal analysis was performed in RevMan 5.3 to calculate relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI).ResultsThirteen studies were enrolled in this Meta-analysis with 10 753 patients, including 5 263 cases in TAVR group and 5 490 cases in SAVR group. Meta-analysis showed that there were no statistically significant differences in all-cause mortality between TAVR group and SAVR group in 30 days, 1 year or 2 years after operation [RR=0.96, 95%CI (0.75, 1.24), P=0.78; RR=0.84, 95%CI (0.68, 1.03), P=0.09; RR=0.97, 95%CI (0.84, 1.14), P=0.75]; while stroke more preferred SAVR no matter 30 days or 1 year [RR=0.64, 95%CI (0.51, 0.80), P<0.000 1;RR=0.76, 95%CI (0.63, 0.92), P=0.004].ConclusionThere is no significant difference in all-cause mortality of intermediate-low risk patients undergoing TAVR and SAVR, but TAVR perfoms better in terms of srtoke.
ObjectiveTo summarize the latest research progress in active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma at home and abroad, and provide some reference for future clinical work. MethodRetrieved and reviewed relevant literatures about prospective studies on active surveillance of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.ResultsIn recent years, the incidence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma had increased sharply, but most of the biological activities were inert, tumor-specific mortality was very low, and only a few had progressed. For patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, surgery was a safe and effective treatment method, but due to changes in the epidemiological characteristics of the disease, people were reconsidering whether there was overtreatment in patients without high-risk characteristics. Expert consensus and guidelines no matter at home or abroad mentioned that active monitoring can be considered as an alternative to surgery. For suitable patients, active monitoring might be a better choice.ConclusionsActive surveillance for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma is basically considered to be a safe and feasible treatment option, but large numbers of clinical trials are still needed to provide evidence for the conversion of conventional clinical treatment models. In the future, by more accurately assessing the tumor progression of patients with low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, active surveillance is promising to alternate surgical treatments.
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become a well-established treatment for patients with severe aortic stenosis. At present, TAVR has already shown noninferiority and even superiority to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients deemed at high or intermediate risk for SAVR. However, the long-term follow-up results of the randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety between TAVR and SAVR are still lacking in those patients who are at low risk for SAVR. This paper gives an overview and reviews results of the Evolut Low Risk trial and interprets its implications for transcatheter therapy in aortic valve diseases.