Objective To explore the feasibility of clinical application of hepatic artery （HA） or proper hepatic artery （PHA） anastomosing with superior mesenteric artery （SMA） and internal iliac vein （IIV） anastomosing with superior mesenteric vein （SMV） or portal vein （PV） in the extended pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with vascular resection．Methods The HA，PHA，SMA， SMV， PV， and IIV were dissected on 20 adult corpses， and the length， thickness，and lumen diameter of blood vessels were measured and compared with the results of multislice spiral CT scan，magnetic resonance angiography，or color Doppler in 25 patients with pancreatic head carcinoma．The extended pancreaticoduodenectomy was carried out on 5 patients of pancreatic head carcinoma with vascular invasion according to the mathcing results，and the reconstructions of HA or PHA with SMA and IIV with SMV or PV were performed．Results According to autopsy，HA-PHA was （5.50±1.50） cm in length，（0.20±0.01） mm in thickness，（5.02±1.32） mm in lumen diameter；and SMA was （4.00±1.00） cm in length，（0.21±0.01） mm in thickness，（6.05±1.06） mm in lumen diameter．The lumen diameter of left IIV，right IIV，and PV or SMV was （11.06±0.16） mm，（11.10±0.13） mm，and （11.56±0.20） mm，respectively．The thickness of left IIV，right IIV，and PV or SMV was （0.10±0.01） mm，（0.10±0.02） mm，and （0.10±0.02） mm，respectively．The multislice spiral CT scan，magnetic resonance angiography，color Doppler，and selective arteriography in vivo showed that the thickness and lumen diameter of HA-PHA and SMA were wider （0.1 mm and 0.3 mm） than those of the autopsy results，and there were no statistic significances （P＞0.05），but the length of HA-PHA was longer （1－2 cm） than that of SMA，and there was statistic significance （P＜0.05）. The survival of 5 patients with extended pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with PHA or SMA and IIV-PV/SMV resection and reconstruction was longer than that of palliative surgery patients or giving-up patients at the same period，and no long-term complications occurred．Conclusions The vascular invasion of pancreatic head carcinoma is not an absolute contraindication of radical pancreaticoduodenectomy．The survival of 5 patients with vascular invasion of pancreatic head carcinoma in this group is prolonged by extended pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with vascular resection and reconstruction as compared with palliative surgery group at the same period．HA，PHA，and IIV are the best autologous vascular alternative materials without more complications． Being familiar with regional anatomy will guide the surgeons in extended pancreaticoduodenectomy.
Objective To investigate the risk factors and preventions of functional delayed gastric emptying (FDGE) after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD). Methods The clinical data of 41 patients after undergoing PPPD between 2003 and 2009 in this hospital were analyzed retrospectively.Results In all 41 cases, postoperative complications developed in 13 patients (31.7%), in which 7 patients developed FDGE (17.1%). The complications excluding FDGE (P=0.010) and diabetes (P=0.024) had remarkable relations with the FDGE in the univariate analysis; Compared with the non-FDGE patients, the albumin was declined obviously (P=0.020) while the serum direct bilirubin increased significantly (P=0.036) in the FDGE patients, while the development of FDGE had relation only with the albumin (P=0.039) and the complication of diabete (P=0.047) by the binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusion In the patients undergoing PPPD, preoperative control of the blood glucose, preoperative correction of hypoproteinemia and hyperbilirubinemia, and centralizing PPPD in high-volume have possibly positive significance for the prevention of FDGE.
ObjectiveTo compare the effectiveness of antecolic duodenojejunostomy (ADJ) and retrocolic duodenojejunostomy (RDJ) after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). MethodsRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ADJ versus RDJ after PPPD were searched in Cochrane Library, PubMed database, Embase database, Web of Science, Chinese biomedicine database, CNKI database, VIP database, and Wanfang database from inception to April 2014, as well as Google. After quality assessment of RCTs according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version, Meta analysis was performed by RevMan 5.1 software. ResultsFour RCTs of 462 patients in total were included in this Meta-analysis. The results of Meta-analysis showed that, there were no significant differences in the operation time (MD=14.02, 95% CI:-41.42-69.46, P=0.62), incidence of postoperative complications (RR=1.09, 95% CI:0.81-1.48, P=0.56), incidence of delayed gastric emptying (RR=0.63, 95% CI:0.31-1.28, P=0.20), incidence of pancreatic fistula (RR=1.13, 95% CI:0.72-1.75, P=0.60), incidence of abdominal abscess (RR=0.92, 95% CI:0.54-1.58, P=0.77), and mortality (RR=0.61, 95% CI:0.24-1.60, P=0.32) between ADJ group and RDJ group. ConclusionsThe effectiveness of ADJ is similar with RDJ after PPPD, so the reconstruction way after PPPD can be routed according to the surgeon's preference.
ObjectiveTo investigate the feasibility and security of laparoscopic Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy(LPD)or laparoscopic pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy(LPPPD)for the patients with periampullary diseases, estimate the ratio of postoperative complications between LPD and LPPPD. MethodsFourty-five patients who underwent the LPD or LPPPD from January 2010 to March 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. These patients were divided into LPD group and LPPPD group basing on the Whipple or polyrus preservation. ResultsAmong these 45 patients, 25 patients were performed the LPD, the other 20 patients were performed the LPPPD. There were 25(55.56%)complications after operation, including 10 cases of pancreatic fistula, 1 case of bile leakage, 6 cases of delayed gastric emptying, 3 cases of infection, 2 cases of stomach intestine stomatorrhagia, 1 case of mesenteric venous thrombosis, 1 case of ascites, 1 case of chylous fistula. The complication rate had no significant difference between two groups. One patient died after operation in the LPPPD group. ConclusionLaparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy is safe and feasible in the treatment of periampullary diseases, the LPPPD could partly prevent the occurrence of reflux of the digestive juice following the resection of pylorus and improve the quality of life.
ObjectiveTo compare the efficacy between laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) and open pancreaticoduodenectomy (OPD) in treatment of carcinoma of head of pancreas. MethodsClinical data of 60 patients with locally advanced carcinoma of head of pancreas who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy in our hospital from October 2004 to October 2009 were collected, of which 26 patients were in LPD group and 34 patients were in OPD group. ResultsOperative time and hospitalization expense of patients in LPD group were both longer or more than those of OPD group (P<0.05), but blood loss, time of starting activity, time of aeration, time of pulling out the drainage tube, time of pulling out the stomach tube, time of absolute resting on bed, and hospitalization time in LPD group were all shorter or lower than those of OPD group (P<0.05). There were 25 patients suffered with postoperative complications, including 10 patients in LPD group and 15 patients in OPD group, and there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in total incidence of postoperative complication (P>0.05). But in the specific postoperative complication, the incidences of pancreatic fistula and biliary fistula of LPD group were higher than those of OPD group (P<0.05), but incidences of incision infection, pulmonary infection, and systemic infection were all lower than those of OPD group (P<0.05). All patients were followed up for 1-60 months with the median time of 21.5 months. During the follow-up period, in LPD group, 24 patients suffered with recurrence, 20 patients suffered with tumor metastasis, and 24 patients died; in LPD group, 31 patients suffered with recurrence, 25 patients suffered with tumor metastasis, and 31 patients died. There were no significant difference between the 2 groups in the recurrence rate, metastasis rate, mortality, and survival situation (P>0.05). ConclusionsFor carcinoma of head of pancreas, postoperative recovery and infection complications of LPD are significantly superior than those of OPD. But compared with the OPD, it has no obvious advantage in reducing the pancreatic fistula, biliary fistula, delayed gastric emptying, and other complications, and it also has no obvious advantage in improving the long-term survival situation too.
ObjectiveTo investigate how to shorten the learning curve of the laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD). MethodsClinical data of 5 patients who underwent the LPD in our hospital from May 2015 to November 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. ResultsThe mean age of 58.8 years old. There were four patients who were diagnosed with periampullary tumor, one patient was distal bile duct carcinoma. The median operative time was 588 min, the average blood loss was 290 mL, the time of feeding was 5 days, the mean hospital stay was 25 days. One case died of cardiovascular event on postoperative day 1. One patient had postoperative bleeding after LPD, who recovered smoothly after reoperation for hemostasis laparoscopiclly. Conciusions LPD needs basic learning curve. The key of this procedure are appropriate treatment of pancreatic head and digestive tract reconstruction. Rich operative experience of surgeon in pancreaticoduodenectomy, optimization of the operation process, skilled in laparoscopic procedures, appropriate cases, appropriate perioperative management, and steady surgical team are also important factor for the success of LPD and shorten learning curve.
ObjectiveTo investigate the application of imbedding pancreaticojejunostomy in pure laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy. MethodsEighty-five cases of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy in our hospital from May 2014 to December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. According with inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, 78 cases were investigated. They were divided into pancreatic duct-to-jejunum mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy group as controlled group (n=42) and imbedding pancreaticojejunostomy (technique of duct-to-mucosa PJ with transpancreatic interlocking mattress sutures) group as modified group (n=36). The rates of pancreatic fistula, abdominal infection/abscess, bile leakage, delayed gastric emptying, gastrointestinal/intraabdominal hemorrhage, pulmonary infection, and incision infection were investigated as well as hospital stays and pancreaticojejunostomy time in two groups were compared. ResultsThe rate of pancreatic fistula especially B to C grade pancreatic fistula in the modified group was obviously lower compared with which in the controlled group (8.3% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.05), pancreaticojejunostomy time ofmodified group was significantly shortened [(35.6±12.4) min vs. (52.8±24.6) min, P < 0.05] and total operative time also shortened [(322.4±23.6) min vs. (384.2±30.2) min, P < 0.05). There were no significant difference of the rates of abdominal infection/abscess, bile leakage, delayed gastric emptying, gastrointestinal/intraabdominal hemorrhage, pulmonary infection, ?incision infection, and hospital stays (P > 0.05)]. Conciusions The type of pancreaticojejunostomy has a significant impact on the rate of pancreatic fistula after laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy. Imbedding pancreaticojejunostomy can decrease the rate of pancreatic fistula after operation, and shorten the pancreaticojejunostomy time and total operative time.
Objective This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the clinical effect between subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (SSPPD) and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD), especially compare the incidences of delayed gastric emptying (DGE) between them. Methods The documents about SSPPD and PPPD were searched in Cochrane Library, PubMed database, Embase database, Web of Science, Chinese biomedicine database, CNKI database, VIP database, and WanFang database. The quality of included studies was assessed according to the Cochrane systematic review methods, and statistical analysis of data was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software. Firstly, comparison of incidence of DGE and other effective indexes between SSPPD group and PPPD group was performed by enrolling all included studies, whether met the DGE standards of International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) or not, and then comparison of incidence of DGE and clinical DGE was performed by enrolling included studies that met the DGE standards of ISGPS. Results Ten studies were included, with a total of 804 patients, in which, 433 cases underwent SSPPD and 371 cases underwent PPPD. The results of meta-analysis indicated that, in all the included studies, the total incidence of DGE〔OR = 0.33, 95%CI is (0.17, 0.63),P = 0.000 9〕, and the time of nasogastric tube〔MD = –2.65，95%CI is (–4.49, –0.80),P = 0.005〕, and time of stared liquid diet〔MD = –4.13, 95%CI is (–7.35, –0.91),P = 0.01〕 showed significant differences. The total incidence of DGE, the time of nasogastric tube, and time of stared liquid diet were less in SSPPD group. But there was no significant difference between the SSPPD group and PPPD group in operating time, intraoperative blood loss, time of started solid diet, hospital stay, and incidences of reinsertion of nasogastric tube, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, reoperation, wound infection, postoperative hemorrhage, and mortality (P>0.05). In the 8 studies adopted DGE standard of ISGPS, the total incidence of DGE〔OR = 0.31, 95%CI is (0.15, 0.65)，P = 0.002〕 and incidence of clinical DGE 〔OR = 0.13，95%CI is (0.05, 0.40),P = 0.000 3〕showed significant differences. The total incidence of DGE and incidence of clinical DGE were both lower in SSPPD group. Conclusions Compared with PPPD group, SSPPD group was associated with significantly less incidence of DGE. Meanwhile, the time of the nasogastric tube and started liquid diet are shorter than those of SSPPD. And there is no significant difference in the other aspects.
Objective To compare the clinical efficacy between total enteral nutrition and enteral nutrition combined with parenteral nutrition after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods A total of 70 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy in our hospital from July 2012 to July 2015 were collected prospectively, and all patients were divided into 2 groups randomly: enteral nutrition group and combined nutrition group. Patients in enteral nutrition group received total enteral nutrition, and patients in combined nutrition group received enteral nutrition combined with parenteral nutrition. Compared the nutritional indicators, other related indexes, and morbidity between the 2 groups. Results ① The nutritional indexes. Compared with before treatment, the body mass index (BMI), white blood cell count, serum albumin level, serum albumin level, and total lymphocyte count at 1 week and 2 weeks after treatment improved (P<0.05). At the same time point (before treatment, 1 week after treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment), there was no significant in the BMI, white blood cell count, serum albumin level, serum albumin level, and total lymphocyte count between the 2 groups (P>0.05). ② Other related indexes. The anal exhaust time, defecation time, and hospital stay of the patients in the combined nutrition group were shorter than those of enteral nutrition group, and the cost of treatment in combined nutrition group was less than that of the enteral nutrition group (P<0.05). ③ Morbidity. There was no significant difference in the total morbidity between the combined nutrition group〔11.4% (4/35)〕 and enteral nutrition group 〔20.0% (7/35)〕,P>0.05. Conclusion Total enteral nutrition and enteral nutrition combined with parenteral nutrition after pancreaticoduodenectomy both can obtain well curative effect, but enteral nutrition combined with parenteral nutrition can make the patients recover faster with lower cost, which is suitable for promotion.
Objective To summarize preliminary experience of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary carcinoma. Method The clinical data of patients with periampullary carcinoma underwent laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy from July 2016 to September 2016 in the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University were analyzed retrospectively. Results Two patients underwent complete laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, 2 patients underwent laparoscopic resection and anastomosis assisted with small incision open. The R0 resection and duct to mucosa pancreaticojejunal anastomosis were performed in all the patients. The operative time was 510–600 min, intraoperative blood loss was 400–600 mL, postoperative hospitalization time was 15–21d, postoperative ambulation time was 6–7 d. Three cases of pancreatic fistula were grade A and all were cured by conservation. No postoperative bleeding, delayed gastric emptying, intra-abdominal infection, and bile leakage occurred. The postoperative pathological results showed that there was 1 case of pancreatic head ductal adenocarcinoma, 1 case of cyst adenocarcinoma of pancreas uncinate process, 1 case of papillary carcinoma of duodenum, and 1 case of terminal bile duct carcinoma. Conclusion The preliminary results of limited cases in this study show that laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy has been proven to be a safe procedure, it could reduce perioperative cardiopulmonary complications, its exhaust time, feeding time, and postoperative ambulation time are shorter, but its operative complications could not be reduced.