Objective To investigate the efficacy, safety, and problems of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and their combination with other therapies in treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Method The relevant literatures on the clinical trials of ICIs and their combination therapy in patients with advanced HCC in recent years were collected and reviewed.Results The therapeutic effects of programmed death receptor 1 and its ligands and cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 monoclonal antibodies in clinical trials of patients with advanced HCC were better, but the therapeutic effect of single drug was limited. Double immunotherapy and its combination with anti-angiogenesis inhibitors, molecular targeted drugs, and local therapy might make patients achieve more remarkable therapeutic effects, especially in combination with anti-angiogenesis inhibitors.Conclusion ICIs could remarkably improve survival prognosis of patients with advanced HCC, combined immunotherapy has better survival benefits.
ZHANG Zilong, SHI Ying, YAO Yutong, HUANG Xiaolun. Advances of research on immune checkpoint inhibitors and their combination with immunotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. CHINESE JOURNAL OF BASES AND CLINICS IN GENERAL SURGERY, 2021, 28(7): 974-980. doi: 10.7507/1007-9424.202009058