• Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First People’s Hospital of Kunming/The Affiliated Ganmei Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650000, P. R. China;
CHEN Gang, Email: kmcg123@163.com
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Objective To summarize the biomarkers related to the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods Reviewed and summarized the literatures on the basic and clinical application of biomarkers related to programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death-ligand 1(PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors and their combination with targeted therapy.Results The combination of immunotherapy and targeted therapy had brought great hope for the treatment of patients with advanced HCC, but there were still some patients who could not benefit from it. Recent studies had shown that expression of PD-L1 in tumor tissue, tumor mutational burden, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, peripheral immune cells, circulating tumor DNA (CtDNA), gut microbiome, and so on, could predict the efficacy of immunotherapy or targeted therapy combined with immunotherapy for HCC.Conclusions There is no specific biomarker to predict the efficacy of immunotherapy and its combination regimen for HCC. More prospective studies are needed to confirm the predictive value of these biomarkers and to establish a multi-factor predictive model or immune score to screen patients who may benefit, which is of great significance for precise immunotherapy of HCC.