Objective To investigate the relationship between the expressions of mismatch repair （MMR） genes （include hMLH1 and hMSH2） and clinicopathological features and prognosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer （HNPCC）. Methods Immunohistochemistry method （Elivision-two step） was used to test expressions of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins （both hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein-positive delimited as MMR protein-positive） in 48 patients with HNPCCaccording to revised Bethesda guidelines， and analyzed the relationship between the expression of MMR protein and clinicopathological features and prognosis of HNPCC. Results Loss rate of hMLH1 protein （20.83%，10/48） was signi-ficantly higher than that of hMSH2 protein （8.33%，4/48）， Ρ＜0.05， and positive expression rate of MMR protein was 70.83% （34/48）. Expression of MMR protein was related with tumor infiltration depth （Ρ＜0.05）. Survival rate of patients with expression and without expression of MMR protein was 85.29% （29/34） and 85.71% （12/14）， respectively， the survival curves of them didn’t significantly differed from each other （Ρ＞0.05）. Conclusions Loss rate of hMLH1 protein is higher than that of hMSH2 protein. Expre ssions of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein are related with tumor infiltration depth， but not related with prognosis.
Objective To investigate the pathological features， diagnosis， treatment， and prognosis of multiple primary colorectal cancer （MPCC）. Methods Clinical data of 41 patients with MPCC treated in The Fourth Affiliated Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from Aug. 1993 to Mar. 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Forty one patients with MPCC， including 29 patients with synchronous colorectal cancer （SCC） and 12 patients with metachronous colorectal cancer （MCC）， accounted for 1.8% （41/2 340） of colorectal cancer during the same period of time， and with adenomatous polyps in 19 cases and polyps canceration in 10 cases. Among 29 patients with SCC， 15 cases （51.7%） were diagnosed by preoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy， 9 cases （31.0%） were diagnosed by preoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy， abdomen CT， and barium enema， 5 cases （17.2%） were diagnosed by intraoperative exploration and intraoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy， respectively. All of the 12 patients with MCC were diagnosed by preoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy and abdomen CT. For 29 patients with SCC， tumor locations were from proximal appendix to distal rectum， but 12 patients with MCC were adverse. Sixty-five （77.4%） tumors were tubular or papillary adenocarcinoma， and 56 （66.7%） tumors were well and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The TNM stage of most tumors （72） was stageⅡ or Ⅲ phase， account for 85.7%. Radical surgeries were performed in 37 patients and palliative surgeries in 4 patients， and there were no complications after operation. During the follow-up for 3-5 years （mear 3.6 years）， the overall survival rate of 3- and 5-year were 48.8% （20/41） and 34.1% （14/41）， respectively. In detail， 3-year survival rate of SCC group and MCC group were 48.3% （14/29） and 50.0% （6/12）， respectively；5-year survival rate were 31.0% （9/29） and 41.7% （5/12）， respectively. Conclusions Cause of MPCC has not been clear， but it has possible relationship with adenomatous polyps. Preoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy， abdomen CT， and barium enema are very important for patients with SCC， and intraoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy is also necessary. Patients with MCC should enhance postoperative follow-up with fiberoptic colonoscopy. Further more， radical resection should be performed as early as possible.
ObjectiveTo investigate the systemic stress responses after laparoscopic resection in colorectal cancer patients.MethodsSixty patients were randomized into the laparoscopic resection group (30 cases) and open resection group (30 cases) from October 2001 to September 2002 in our hospital.Analgesic dosages, recovery time of intestinal peristalsis, postoperative temperatures, C reactive protein(CRP), IL6 and white blood cell (WBC) counts were recorded after operation. ResultsThe changes of postoperative temperatures and WBC counts showed no significant difference between two groups.But in the laparoscopic resection group, the recovery time of intestinal peristalsis, postoperative analgesic dosages, CRP and IL6 significantly decreased (P＜0.01,P＜0.05).ConclusionCompared with traditional open resection, laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer can diminish the systemic stress responses and decrease the injury to patients.
摘要:目的： 检测大肠癌组织中Kras基因的突变情况以指导临床治疗。 方法 ：通过提取15例大肠癌石蜡组织中的DNA并进行PCR扩增,之后采用国际金标准方法直接测序法进行检测获得突变信息。 结果 ：15例大肠癌石蜡组织样本中Kras有4例发生突变,突变率为266%。值得注意的是发现一个新的突变位点密码子42,并且与密码子12突变共存。 结论 ：密码子42的突变进一步证明Kras突变不仅局限于密码子12,13,61,还有与密码子12共存的42位突变。Abstract: Objective: To detect the mutation status of Kras gene in colorectal cancers and to assist the clinical treatments Methods : DNA was extracted from fifteen formalinfixed, paraffinembedded tumor samples of colorectal cancers, and then the fragments containing codons 12,13 and codon 61 were amplified by PCR The sequences were indentified by direct sequencing which is gold standard for the detection of mutation Results : In the 15 samples of colorectal cancer patients, 4 mutations were observed, with 2 in codon 12 and 2 in codon 13 Suprisingly, a novel point mutation at codon 42 of Kras was found, and coexisted with mutation in codon 12 Conclusion : Except for codons 12,13,61 mutation, Kras has other mutation at codon 42 with coexisted with codon 12 point mutation
摘要:目的:探讨老年人梗阻性大肠癌的围手术期处理。方法:回顾性分析2003年至2008年间71例60岁以上老年人梗阻性大肠癌的围手术期处理情况。 结果:术前发现并存病者43例,术中出现并发症19例,术后发生并发症37例得,除5例死亡外,均得到有效控制,死亡原因与并存疾病有关。结论:加强围手术期处理,积极治疗并存疾病,老年人梗阻性大肠癌的治疗同样能取得满意的效果。Abstract: Objective:To study the perioperative measures for the aged patients with Obstructive Colorectal Cancer. Methods: Seventyone cases above 60 years with Obstructive Colorectal Cancer were analysed retrospectively on their individual accompanied diseases and perioperative treatments, from 2003 to 2008.Results: Fortythree cases of them had suffered from other diseases. Midoperative complications occurred in 19 cases. Postoperative complications occurred in 37 cases. Except 5 cases of death, complications occurring in others cases were well controlled. The death causes mainly were correlated with accompanied chronic diseases. Conclusion: Strengthen care, active management of other chronic diseases are important significantly for senile patients with colorectal carcinoma to get satisfied outcome.
Objective To analyze the clinical pathological features of patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer （HNPCC） in northeast Chinese. Methods The clinical data of 101 probands （HNPCC group） from 1982 to 2011 in the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University and Tumor hospital of Liaoning Province and 272 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer （sporadic CRC group） in the same period were collected. The clinicopathologic features were compared in two groups. Results In the HNPCC group， the age of onset was younger than 45 years old in 24 patients （23.8%）， proximal colon in 31 （30.7%）， multiple primary carcinomas in 26 （25.7%）， extracolonic carcinoma in 13 （12.9%）， mucinous adenocarcinoma in 32 （31.7%）， phaseⅠandⅡin 68 （67.3%）， high-middle differentiation in 70 （69.3%）， and lymph node metastasis in 33 （32.7%）， while in the sporadic CRC group were 12 （4.4%）， 54 （19.9%）， 15 （5.5%）， 11 （4.0%）， 30 （11.0%）， 127 （46.7%）， 152 （55.9%）， and 140 （51.5%）， respectively. There were significant differences between the HNPCC group and the sporadic CRC group （P＜0.05）. Meanwhile， extracolonic carcinomas in the HNPCC group were endometrial cancer in 3， bladder cancer in 3， breast cancer in 2， brain tumor in 2， ovarian cancer in 1， gastric cancer in 1， and lung cancer in 1. Conclusions Northeast China HNPCC patients with several particular clinicopathologic features such as early onset， frequent localization in proximal colon， proclivity of synchronous and metachronous tumors， excessive mucinous adenocarcinoma， less poorly differentiated tumors， lymph node metastasis， early stage of tumor， and so on. Therefore， clinicopathologic feature is still a preferred method of diagnosis of HNPCC patients or suspected HNPCC patients.
Objective To investigate the change of immunologic gene expression in cases of colorectal cancer with liver metastasis. Methods The total RNAs were extracted from tumor tissues of original lesions in 16 patients with colorectal cancer， DNA microarray was used to examine the change of immunologic gene expression in colorectal cancer patients with or without liver metastasis. Results Compared with samples without liver metastases， the expressions of 11 immunologic genes obviously down-regulated in the tumor tissues of colorectal cancer patients with liver metastasis， including：carboxypeptidase D；Fc fragment of IgE， high affinityⅠreceptor for gamma polypeptide；Fc fragment of IgG， low affinityⅢa receptor （CD16a）；free fatty acid receptor 2；interleukin 2 receptor gamma；protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C；complement factor B；major histocompatibility complex， classⅡ， DM alpha；major histocompatibility complex， classⅡ， DM beta；major histocompatibility complex， classⅡ， DQ alpha 1；granzyme B. The functions involved the growth and activation of immunologic cell， signal transduction， cell apoptotic， cell factors， receptors， complement， apoptotic， and immunogenicity of tumor cell. Conclusions Down-regulation of a various of immunologic gene expression in colorectal cancer patients with liver metastasis inhibits the function of immunology， and tumor cells escaped the destruction of immunology system results in metastasis.
Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy (HIPC) in treatment of advanced colorectal cancer.Methods The Meta-analysis was applied to analyze 8 randomized controlled quantitative studies published at domestic and abroad. These patients treated by HIPC after radical operation with colorectal cancer were included for the treatment group, and those treated only by radical operation with colorectal cancer for the control group. Relative risk (RR) of outcome variable of 3-year and 5-year survival rate and safety between the two groups were compared. Results There were 8 selected literatures, including 1 501 cases, in which 765 cases for treatment group, and 736 cases for control group. RR of 5-year survival rate of the total patients was 2.39 (95% CI: 1.66-3.45). RR of 3-year survival rate of the total patients was 2.13 (95% CI: 1.45-3.13). The results demonstrated that HIPC could improve 5-year and 3-year survival rate, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the conclusions more reliable. The security was described in 5 literatures, the available information showed smaller potential security issue. Conclusions HIPC after radical operation of advanced colorectal cancer can increase 5-year and 3-year survival rate of patients, improve the prognosis of patients. Whether patients with increased incidence of postoperative complications related to the HIPC is no clear-cut conclusions for lack of related research.
Objective To refine the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 7q21－22 and identify the new tumor suppressor gene(s) in colorectal tumorigenesis. Methods Fifteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were analyzed on chromosome 7 and another 5 markers were applied on chromosome 7q21-22 region in 83 cases of colorectal cancer and normal DNA by PCR. PCR products were electrophoresed on an ABI Prism 377 DNA sequencer. GeneScan 3.1 and Genotyper 2.1 software were used for LOH scanning and analysis. Results A distinct region of frequent allelic deletion was observed on chromosome, another 5 polymorphic microsatellite markers were applied to 7q21-22 and the minimal region of frequent LOH was established on 7q21-22 spanning the D7S657, D7S646 locus. Conclusion Through detailed deletion mapping studies, a critical and precise region spanning the D7S657, D7S646 locus is identified, which must contain one or more unknown tumor suppressor gene(s) on colorectal cancer.
ObjectiveTo assess the effectiveness and safety of capacitance combined with irinotecan (CAPIRI) versus fluorouracil combined with irinotecan (FOLFIRI) for patients with advanced metastatic colorectal cancer. MethodsDatabases such as Pubmed, Embase, Wanfang data, CNKI, Cochran Library were searched from January 2000 to October 2015. We evaluated the quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and then extracted data from them. RevMan 5.2 software was used to perform the meta-analysis. ResultsEight RCTs studies with 1 634 advanced metastatic colorectal cancer patients were included based on our standard. CAPIRI regimen was equal to FOLFIRI regimen in complete response rate [RR=1.17, 95%CI (0.70, 1.96), P=0.56], overall respond rate [RR=0.90, 95%CI (0.79, 1.03), P=0.12], disease control rate [RR=0.93, 95%CI (0.87, 1.00), P=0.06], median progression-free survival [HR=1.00, 95%CI (0.72, 1.37), P=0.99], and median overall survival [HR=0.94, 95%CI (0.63, 1.40), P=0.77]. For safety, higher incidence rate of grade 3/4 vomiting [RR=1.91, 95%CI (1.13, 3.22), P=0.02], diarrhea [RR=2.84, 95%CI (2.22, 3.63), P<0.000 01], hand-foot syndrome [RR=4.55, 95%CI (2.15, 9.61), P<0.000 1] were confirmed for CAPIRI. The two methods had similar toxicities: nausea [RR=0.77, 95%CI (0.64, 0.93), P=0.005], fatigue [RR=1.19, 95%CI (0.73, 1.94), P=0.47], febrile neutropenia [RR=1.59, 95%CI (0.89, 2.87), P=0.12], anemia [RR=1.74, 95%CI (0.59, 5.18), P=0.32], and leukopenia [RR=0.77, 95%CI (0.64, 0.93), P=0.005]. ConclusionCapecitabine combined with irinotecan treatment for advanced colorectal cancer is effective and its toxicity is acceptable.