Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the aberrant methylation of genes in stool for colorectal tumor. Methods Databases including The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, CBM, Web of Science, CNKI and WanFang Data were searched to collect the diagnostic trials on the aberrant methylation of genes in stool for colorectal tumor published from January 1990 to February 2012. QUADAS items were used to evaluate the quality of the included studies, and the meta-analysis was conducted using Meta-Disc 1.4 software. Results A total of 32 studies involving 3 951 patients were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that, for detecting the colorectal tumor, the weighted sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve and Q were 92% (95%CI 91% to 93%), 63% (95%CI 61% to 65%), 20.79 (95%CI 15.13 to 28.57), 0.861 9 (SE=0.020 4), and 0.792 6 (SE=0.019 8), respectively. For detecting the colorectal cancer, the weighted sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) were 91% (95%CI 89% to 92%), 75% (95%CI 73% to 77%), and 0.900 7, respectively. For detecting the colorectal adenoma, the weighted sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 79% (95%CI 76% to 83%), 75% (95%CI 73% to 77%), and 0.845 7, respectively. Conclusion With high sensitivity (92%) and moderate specificity (63%), aberrant methylation of genes in stool can be used as an optional noninvasive method for the diagnosis of colorectal tumor.
Objective To explore the effect of different nutrition on the immune function of patients with colorectal cancer. Methods A total of 640 colorectal cancer patients were randomized into the enteral nutrition and peripheral nutrition groups. The peripheral venous blood was sampled before operation and on the postoperative days 1 and 7 to determine the serum levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, the percentage of T lymph cell subgroups CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 and CRP, PGE, α- antitrypsin etc. The patient’s general condition, side-effects, and complications were observed intimately after surgery. Results Compared with the control group, the IgG, IgA, IgM, CD3, CD4,CD4/CD8 levels of the trial group on postoperative day 7 were higher. But the levels of CRP, PGE, α- antitrypsin were decreased. Hospitalization time and anal exsufflation time were shorter as well. There was no significant difference in either the general conditions or complications between the two groups. Conclusion Application of enteral nutrition after colorectal cancer surgery is safe, ,effective, and can improve the patient’s immune function and prognosis.
Objective To compare and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of irinotecan (IRI) versus oxaplatin (OXA), in combination with 5-FU/LV for patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Methods The literature search, study selection and assessment, data collection and analysis were undertaken by two reviewers according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing IRI versus OXA, in combination with 5-FU/LV in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer were collected. Results Seven studies involving 2107 patients were included. The OXA/5-FU/LV regimen was superior or at least equal to the IRI/5-FU/LV regimen in prolonging overall survival and time to progression. The OXA/5-FU/LV regimen showed a higher response rate and was associated with lower toxicities. Conclusion Compared with IRI, OXA is more appropriate for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer when combined with 5-FU/LV.
Objective To investigate the relationship between the expressions of mismatch repair （MMR） genes （include hMLH1 and hMSH2） and clinicopathological features and prognosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer （HNPCC）. Methods Immunohistochemistry method （Elivision-two step） was used to test expressions of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins （both hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein-positive delimited as MMR protein-positive） in 48 patients with HNPCCaccording to revised Bethesda guidelines， and analyzed the relationship between the expression of MMR protein and clinicopathological features and prognosis of HNPCC. Results Loss rate of hMLH1 protein （20.83%，10/48） was signi-ficantly higher than that of hMSH2 protein （8.33%，4/48）， Ρ＜0.05， and positive expression rate of MMR protein was 70.83% （34/48）. Expression of MMR protein was related with tumor infiltration depth （Ρ＜0.05）. Survival rate of patients with expression and without expression of MMR protein was 85.29% （29/34） and 85.71% （12/14）， respectively， the survival curves of them didn’t significantly differed from each other （Ρ＞0.05）. Conclusions Loss rate of hMLH1 protein is higher than that of hMSH2 protein. Expre ssions of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein are related with tumor infiltration depth， but not related with prognosis.
Objective To investigate the sensitivity of 5 kinds of chemotherapeutic drugs on human colorectal cancer in vivo. Methods Xenografts in nude mice were set up by tumor tissues from 9 patients with colorectal cancer and nude mice were divided into 6 groups randomly， receiving saline （control group）， 5-fluorouracil （5-FU group）， doxorubicin（ADM group）， mitomycin （MMC group）， oxaliplatin （LOHP group）， and irinotecan （CPT-11 group）， respectively. The inhibitive rates （IR） of xenografts in 5 groups for each patient were calculated. Results The lowest and highest IR of 5 groups were 23.6% and 54.9% in 5-FU group， 23.7% and 69.5% in LOPH group， 23.6% and 82.6% in CPT-11group， 24.1% and 48.1% in MMC group， 5.8% and 20.7% in ADM group， respectively. The IR exceeded 40.0% in 7 patients of LOHP group， 6 patients of CPT-11 group， 4 patients of 5-FU group， and 1 patient of MMC group， respec-tively. Of 9 patients， the IR exceeded 40.0% to 3 kinds of drugs in 3 patients， to 2 kinds of drugs in 4 patients， the IR didn’t exceed 30.0% to 4 kinds of drug （IR was 82.6% to CPT-11） in 1 patient， and the IR didn’t exceed 31.0% to all 5 kinds of drugs in 1 patient. There were statistical differences on the IR of 5 kinds of drugs （H=24.061 2， P=0.000 1）. IR of ADM group was statistical lower than 5-FU group， MMC group， LOHP group， and CPT-11 group （P＜0.05），but there were no statistical differences between 5-FU group， MMC group， LOHP group， and CPT-11 group （P＞0.05）. Conclusions The xenografts from same patient have different sensitivity to different chemotherapy drugs， and the same chemotherapy drug corresponds to different IR in different patients. The IR of LOHP and CPT-11 are the highest， following by 5-FU and MMC.
Objective To investigate the pathological features， diagnosis， treatment， and prognosis of multiple primary colorectal cancer （MPCC）. Methods Clinical data of 41 patients with MPCC treated in The Fourth Affiliated Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from Aug. 1993 to Mar. 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Forty one patients with MPCC， including 29 patients with synchronous colorectal cancer （SCC） and 12 patients with metachronous colorectal cancer （MCC）， accounted for 1.8% （41/2 340） of colorectal cancer during the same period of time， and with adenomatous polyps in 19 cases and polyps canceration in 10 cases. Among 29 patients with SCC， 15 cases （51.7%） were diagnosed by preoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy， 9 cases （31.0%） were diagnosed by preoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy， abdomen CT， and barium enema， 5 cases （17.2%） were diagnosed by intraoperative exploration and intraoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy， respectively. All of the 12 patients with MCC were diagnosed by preoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy and abdomen CT. For 29 patients with SCC， tumor locations were from proximal appendix to distal rectum， but 12 patients with MCC were adverse. Sixty-five （77.4%） tumors were tubular or papillary adenocarcinoma， and 56 （66.7%） tumors were well and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The TNM stage of most tumors （72） was stageⅡ or Ⅲ phase， account for 85.7%. Radical surgeries were performed in 37 patients and palliative surgeries in 4 patients， and there were no complications after operation. During the follow-up for 3-5 years （mear 3.6 years）， the overall survival rate of 3- and 5-year were 48.8% （20/41） and 34.1% （14/41）， respectively. In detail， 3-year survival rate of SCC group and MCC group were 48.3% （14/29） and 50.0% （6/12）， respectively；5-year survival rate were 31.0% （9/29） and 41.7% （5/12）， respectively. Conclusions Cause of MPCC has not been clear， but it has possible relationship with adenomatous polyps. Preoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy， abdomen CT， and barium enema are very important for patients with SCC， and intraoperative fiberoptic colonoscopy is also necessary. Patients with MCC should enhance postoperative follow-up with fiberoptic colonoscopy. Further more， radical resection should be performed as early as possible.
Objective To discuss the safety of fast track surgery for patients with obstructive colorectal cancer. Methods Between February 2008 and February 2009, 157 cases of obstructive colorectal cancer were analyzed retrospectively, 59 in fast track (FT) group and 98 in traditional group. Postoperative early rehabilitations and complications were studied and compared. Results The first time of passing flatus, oral intake and postoperative hospital stay in FT group were significantly earlier or less than those in traditional group （Plt;0.05）, while there were no significant differences in time of first ambulation, time with use of nasogastric tubes, urinary catheter, and drains between the 2 groups （Pgt;0.05）. There was also no statistically significant difference in postoperative complications rate between the 2 groups （Pgt;0.05）. Conclusion Fast track surgery for patients with obstructive colorectal cancer is safe and can accelerate recovery with decreasing length of hospital stay and improving life quality of the patients.
Objective To investigate the expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and caudal homeobox gene 2 (CDX2) in colorectal adenocarcinoma, and the relationships between them and the clinicopathologic factor of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Methods The expressions of HIF-1α and CDX2 were detected by immunohistochemistry in 62 specimens of colorectal adenocarcinoma and 20 specimens of normal colorectal mucosa tissue. The correlation between the expressions of HIF-1α and CDX2 was analyzed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results The positive rates of HIF-1α expression in normal colorectal mucosa tissue and colorectal adenocarcinoma were 5.0% （1/20） and 62.9% （39/62）, CDX2 were 95.0% （19/20） and 69.4% （43/62）, the differences of positive rate between different tissues were significant （Plt;0.05）. In colorectal adenocarcinoma, the expression of HIF-1α or CDX2 was related to tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and Dukes staging (Plt;0.05). There was a negative correlation between HIF-1α and CDX2 expressions in colorectal adenocarcinoma （r=－0.293 2，Plt;0.05）. Conclusions The up-regulation of HIF-1α and down-regulation of CDX2 may be involved in the genesis of colorectal adenocarcinoma， and there is a negative correlation between the two kinds of protein. HIF-1α may participate in modulation of CDX2 expression and lead to accelerate the progression of colorectal carcinoma.
ObjectiveTo evaluate the usefulness of estimation of physiologic ability and surgical stress (E-PASS) for predicting postoperative complications in patients undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery. MethodsPatients underwent colorectal cancer surgery between August 2009 and October 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. E-PASS equations were applied to those patients for estimation of operative risk. The preoperative risk score (PRS), surgical stress score (SSS), and comprehensive risk score (CRS) of the E-PASS were compared with actual postoperative complications. The relationship between E-PASS variables and morbidity after colorectal cancer surgery was identified. ResultsOf the 313 patients, 22 (7.0%) had postoperative complications. Of all the E-PASS variables between complicative group and noncomplicative group, the morbidity was significantly correlated to age (P=0.003), weight (P=0.019), tumor histologic types (P=0.033), Dukes stage (P=0.001), severe heart disease (P=0.019), severe pulmonary disease (P=0.000), performance status (P=0.000), loss of blood volume/body weight (P=0.007), loss of blood volume (P=0.001) and operation time (P=0.001). Differentiation degree of tumor (P=0.503), diabetes (P=0.745), ASA grade (P=0.085), and size of surgical incision (P=0.726) were not significantly associated with postoperative complications. The PRS and CRS were higher in complicative group than those in noncomplicative group (Plt;0.001). But the difference of SSS between the two groups was not statistically significant (P=0.059). ConclusionThe E-PASS scoring system is a relatively simple, fast, and operable tool that can be used to predict short-term postoperative morbidity accurately for clinical decision-making in colorectal cancer surgery.
Objective To explore application of preoperative examination in the colorectal cancer patients. Methods The preoperative examination data of patients diagnosed definitely as colorectal cancer at West China Hospital of Sichuan University from November 2006 to June 2007 was retrospectively study, and the application situation and relationship among all preoperative examination in the colorectal cancer patients were analyzed. Results According to the inclusion criteria, 438 colorectal cancer patients were included which involved 260 males and 178 females. Preoperative examinations included two to sixteen items, with an average of 10.61 items. According to correlation analysis, positive correlation existed among lung function and blood type ( r =0.161, P =0.001), tumor marker ( r =0.118, P =0.014), chest X-ray ( r =0.113, P =0.018), routine electrocardiogram ( r =0.198, P =0.000) , while lung function and immune and stress reaction exhibit a negative correlation ( r =-0.106, P = 0.027) with preoperative examinations. At the same time, immune and stress reaction had positive correlation to CT examinations of abdomen ( r =0.151, P =0.001) as well as endorectal ultrasound ( r =0.330, P =0.000). Using univariate analysis, the influence of tumor location ( P =0.012) and operative method ( P =0.004) on the number of examination items was significant. Conclusion Preoperative examination of colorectal tumor surgery mainly includes routine examination, neoplasm-related examination and important organs function detection. And three levels of preoperative menu can be set up in early stage. Establishment of normalization preoperative combined examination may be helpful to consummate preoperative evaluation and improve medical quality.